PRA stands for Progressive Retinal Atrophy. It is a general term for the group of diseases causing
degeneration of the retina, leading to loss of vision. The form of this disorder in Labradors is prcd
(Progressive Rod-Cone Degeneration). This leads first to the loss of night vision and then to complete
RD/OSD stands for Retinal Dysplasia-retinal folds (RD). Retinal folds can cause blindness in a dog if not
corrected by surgery. OSD (OculoSkeletal Dysplasia) is a serious inherited syndrome that causes severe
condition in which the dogs show a variety of skeletal malformations, including shortened limbs (dwarfism),
and blindness at an early age; the blindness results from a generalized malformation of the retina that
causes a partial or full retinal detachment and cataracts.

EIC stands for Exercise-Induced Collapse. It is a devastating genetic disorder causing the affected dog to
suffer from loss of muscle control following extreme exercise. This disorder is caused by a mutation in the
Dyamin 1 gene. Because EIC is a recessive disorder, a dog must have two copies of the mutation in order for
the disease to manifest itself. Typically an affected dog begins to show symptoms between 5 months and 3
years of age.

DM stands for Degenerative myelopathy is a progressive disease, meaning that dogs get slowly weaker and
weaker over a four to six month period of time following diagnosis. Degenerative myelopathy usually affects
the hind legs first, but muscle weakness can spread to the front legs as well. Dogs with degenerative
myelopathy may begin to stumble frequently as they become progressively weaker due to nerve damage.
Eventually, dogs with degenerative myelopathy will lose control of their bladder and bowels. As the disease
moves into its final stages, symptoms of weakness, trembling and stumbling will begin to affect the front
legs as well.  

CNM stands for Centronuclear Myopathy. Puppies are born apparently normal, however, it quickly becomes
evident that there is a problem. The puppy will often not gain weight due to decreased muscle tone in the
esophagus. By age 2 to 5 months the disease has usually progressed to display the full range of symptoms,
including a loss of muscle tone and control, an awkward gait and extreme exercise in tolerance. This
condition gets worse in cold conditions. There is not cure for CNM, although the dog can live a normal life
span, their muscles tissue will never develop properly.  
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Cystinuria is a genetic defect in which the kidney is not able to process a basic amino acid, cystine, correctly.
Affected dogs are born with this condition but in most cases it takes many years before things get bad
enough that we notice it.
Over time, the unprocessed cystine in the urine clumps together to form stones. These stones can block the
urinary tract. This is a life-threatening condition and requires surgery.
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